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Biology Lab 12 Evidence Of Evolution Answer Key Mader


Biology Lab 12 Evidence Of Evolution Answer Key Mader https://urlin.us/2tvkqm





How to Use Mader's Biology Lab 12 to Learn About Evidence of Evolution


Evidence of evolution is the collection of data that supports the theory that all living organisms share a common ancestor and have changed over time due to natural selection. There are many types of evidence for evolution, such as fossils, comparative anatomy, molecular biology, and embryology. In this article, we will explain how you can use Mader's Biology Lab 12 to explore some of these evidence and test your understanding of evolutionary concepts.


Fossils


Fossils are the preserved remains or impressions of organisms that lived in the past. They provide a record of the history of life on Earth and show how different groups of organisms have changed over time. Fossils can also reveal information about the environment and climate of different geological periods.


In Mader's Biology Lab 12, you will examine some fossil specimens and compare them with modern organisms. You will learn how to use the principle of superposition, which states that older layers of sedimentary rock are found below younger layers, to determine the relative age of fossils. You will also learn how to use index fossils, which are fossils of organisms that lived for a short time span and had a wide geographic distribution, to correlate rock layers from different locations.


Comparative Anatomy


Comparative anatomy is the study of the similarities and differences in the structure and function of body parts of different organisms. It can reveal how closely related different organisms are and how they have adapted to their environments. There are two types of structures that are important for comparative anatomy: homologous structures and analogous structures.


Homologous structures are structures that have a common origin but may have different functions. For example, the forelimbs of humans, cats, whales, and bats are homologous because they all evolved from a common ancestor with a similar limb structure. However, they have different functions such as grasping, walking, swimming, and flying.


Analogous structures are structures that have a similar function but different origins. For example, the wings of birds, insects, and bats are analogous because they all serve the function of flying. However, they evolved independently from different ancestors with different limb structures.


In Mader's Biology Lab 12, you will observe some examples of homologous and analogous structures in various animals. You will also compare the skulls and teeth of herbivores, carnivores, and omnivores and see how they reflect their dietary habits.


Molecular Biology


Molecular biology is the study of the structure and function of molecules that are essential for life, such as DNA, RNA, proteins, and enzymes. It can provide evidence for evolution by showing how similar or different the molecular composition of different organisms is. The more similar the molecules are, the more closely related the organisms are.


In Mader's Biology Lab 12, you will perform a gel electrophoresis experiment to compare the serum proteins of different animals. Serum proteins are proteins that are found in blood plasma and play various roles in immunity, transport, and metabolism. Gel electrophoresis is a technique that separates molecules based on their size and charge by applying an electric current to a gel matrix. The serum proteins will form bands on the gel according to their molecular weight and charge. You will then use an antibody solution to react with specific serum proteins and form precipitates that will appear as cloudy spots on the gel. The more cloudy spots there are between two animals' serum proteins, the more similar they are.


Embryology


Embryology is the study of the development of embryos from fertilization to birth. It can provide evidence for evolution by showing how similar or different the early stages of development of different organisms are. The more similar the embryos are, the more closely related the org




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